Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness.
DINSA leads with the University of Salamanca and the University of Vigo the R & D to design and build a device capable of providing detailed information on the development of buildings for energy audits.
The device will be able to enter data into energy rating programs authorized by the IDEA. Data acquisition is obtained using geolocation devices, image and incorporated into land or air vehicles thermography. Thus, three-dimensional maps are generated with all the information of the thermal envelope of buildings so geographically localized.
This century is called to be the century of smart cities, smart cities (SC), with the SC one of the most powerful tools in public policy in the areas of cities in the coming years. Latest figures speak of urban populations that far exceed the rural population and estimates say that by 2050 the urban population will reach 70% worldwide.
Targeting this problem in the energy sector, it is estimated that today cities are responsible for spending 75% of the world’s energy and generate 80% of the gases responsible for the greenhouse effect. All this points to an exponential growth and transformation of cities in recent years, where cities become truly complex ecosystems where energy needs will increase inevitably. Under these circumstances, the smart cities become perfect and comprehensive system that aim for efficient and sustainable energy management in urban environments, especially when rising energy prices are forcing companies and households optimize consumption. Furthermore, the world faces the challenge of climate change, so reducing CO2 emissions by an increasingly efficient use of energy while the use of renewable energy (photovoltaics, geothermal, wind increases, biomass, etc..) is essential for achieving the objectives.
Specializing the case of Spain, the country ranks seventh in energy dependency of the EU-27 with a rate of 81.4% in 2009. Specifically, the energy consumption for the services associated with buildings accounts for approximately one third energy consumption in the EU and about a third of total CO2 emissions, over consumption derived from industrial activity or transportation. For this reason, the rationalization of energy consumption has become a priority in national and European energy policy. In the context of security of energy supply (Green Paper on security of supply), as well as commitments to combat climate change (Kyoto Protocol, Copenhagen agreements 2009, 2010 Cancun Agreements) regulations are framed as the Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the energy performance of buildings, the National Plan Saving and Energy Efficiency 2008-2011 the National Housing and Rehabilitation 2009-2012, European Commission measures » EC 20/20/20 «(2008) and Directive 2010/31/EC (2010) on the energy performance of buildings. These regulations is seen as a priority the reduction of energy consumption in the building to the level of 20% in 2020.En sum, environmental and sustainability consciousness is irreversibly in shaping regulations that set minimum systematically energy efficiency and renewable resources in all areas of the building.
The need to optimize resources, cut costs and reduce the environmental impact on government and private companies has driven in recent years, the development of services aimed at improving energy efficiency in buildings and other facilities. This market in 2009 reached 800 million euros, which was double the figure recorded in 2006. Was estimated that in 2010 the market grew by 15%. The public sector accounted for 70% of turnover, having acted so far as the main driver of business growth, developing government policies to meet the objectives of Community legislation on energy saving and efficiency. The sector has good prospects in the medium term, considering the increasing development of the regulatory framework, the creation of public plans for energy efficiency and improved service knowledge by potential customers. The Energy Savings Plan 2004-2012 of the Ministry of Industry collects edificatoria actions on the envelope that affect 5% of the building stock, which is acting on 91 million m2, and measures on thermal installations that extend to 50% of boilers and cold groups.
Alternatively, carry out a precise and reliable energy audit of cities becomes more difficult the more dense and complex the nature of its construction, the complex being especially ensure the safety and security of cities in terms of energy supply relates. In this sense, having three-dimensional maps that yield high accuracy and reliability in their face geometry is vital to efficient energy management, as well as the integration of renewable energy sources. On the other hand, have a city in three dimensions with all its components geo integrating energy information provided by the service, consumers themselves and even transportation systems, will enable the power to carry out numerical simulations in energy terms that enable it to serve as a tool for decision support, troubleshooting and optimization of energy expenditure.
It should be noted under the umbrella of smart cities, there are five pillars on which rests the energy issue:
Smart grids, based on the intelligent management of energy distribution;
Smart Generation and Storage, based on the self-generation and storage of energy from renewable sources.
Smart Energy Mangement, based on the efficient management of end-use energy.
Smart and Informed Customer, referred to inform, raise awareness and help people towards responsible consumption.
Smart environmental monitoring, based on the monitoring of environmental parameters such as air, water quality, noise, moisture, temperature, pollen count, etc.. Thus the time variable becomes the cornerstone for the urban dimensional maps are processed and have life, showing large differences between the different phases of the day, or between weekends and weekdays.
It is estimated that an efficient energy management could lead to a reduction of between 8% and 15% of emissions of greenhouse gases and this, in the case of intelligent buildings, can reach between 30% and 50%. For the consumer, if this is properly informed, aware and helped, it could achieve a reduction of between 5% and 15% of their energy consumption.
Through this project, «MODELING ENERGY FOR SMART CITIES» the consortium DINSA, Marsan ENGINEERS, ENGINEERING INSITU, and VIGO UNIVERSITY COLLEGE SALAMANCA, seamlessly develop tools, methodologies and solutions to acquire qualitative and quantitative information about the behavior thermographic areas or neighborhoods in urban environments that enhance the visible information that can provide conventional cameras.